Improving skin barrier by enhancing function of Tight junctions

Improving skin barrier by enhancing function of Tight junctions

Probiotic lysates from certain bacterial strains can enhance tight-junction function in human keratinocytes, with Bifidobacterium longum and Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG being the most effective, potentially through modulation of protein components.

Reshma Sultana and colleagues (2013) described strain-dependent augmentation of tight-junction barrier function in human primary epidermal keratinocytes by lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium lysates. Probiotic lysates, specifically from B. longum, can enhance tight junction function in human primary keratinocytes through signaling via Toll Like Receptor-2 (TLR2). The potential of bacterially derived components to improve tight junction function in keratinocytes is demonstrated, with ramifications for conditions like atopic dermatitis. Tight junctions are crucial for skin barrier function, and probiotic lysates may play a role in treating barrier dysfunction. The use of lysates from probiotic bacteria is preferred for skin health due to their safety record.

WHAT THIS ARTICLE ADDS:

the study investigated whether probiotic lysates can modify the tight-junction function of human primary keratinocytes

  • The mechanism by which  B. longum  increases tight junctions (TJs) protein expression and transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) is almost certainly associated with signaling through Toll Like Receptor-2 (TLR2)
  • The peptidoglycan-induced increase in TJ function was Toll-like receptors (TLRs) dependent. All these data demonstrate the potential for bacterial lysate to augment TJ function in keratinocytes.
  • It may be that some of the molecular mechanisms used by probiotic bacteria such as L. rhamnosus GG to increase TJ function are similar between gut and skin.
  • Currently, virtually nothing is known regarding how TJs are formed or regulated in skin, so much more work is required in the area before firm conclusions can be reached as to how the L. rhamnosus GG lysate enhances keratinocyte TJ barrier function
  • Lysates of probiotic bacteria could potentially play a role in the treatment of barrier dysfunction under conditions where the TJs are known to be aberrant, such as atopic dermatitis, where loss of expression of claudin 1 is reportedly involved in a subset of patients.

ABSTRACT

In this study, the authors investigated whether probiotic lysates can modify the tight-junction function of human primary keratinocytes. The keratinocytes were grown on cell culture inserts and treated with lysates from Bifidobacterium longum, Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus reuteri, Lactobacillus fermentum, or Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG. With the exception of L. fermentum (which decreased cell viability), all strains markedly enhanced tight-junction barrier function within 24 h, as assessed by measurements of transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER). However, B. longum and L. rhamnosus GG were the most efficacious, producing dose-dependent increases in resistance that were maintained for 4 days. These increases in TEER correlated with elevated expression of tight-junction protein components. Neutralization of Toll-like receptor 2 abolished both the increase in TEER and expression of tight-junction proteins induced by B. longum, but not L. rhamnosus GG. These data suggest that some bacterial strains increase tight-junction function via modulation of protein components but the different pathways involved may vary depending on the bacterial strain.

KEY RESULTS

  • Five strains of bacteria were evaluated for their effect on TJ function. Of these, lysates of all but L. fermentum were able to increase the TEER of keratinocytes. L. The other four strains of lactobacilli all enhanced TJ function, but to different degrees. In this regard, L. rhamnosus GG and B. longum produced greater and more sustained increases in TEER than did L. plantarum or L. reuteri.
  • Peptidoglycan also induced increased transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) in keratinocytes. However, the changes observed were strikingly different from those seen with whole lysates.  Nevertheless, this raises the interesting possibility that cell wall components in the lysates may be at least partially responsible for the changes observed in TJ function. However, the significant differences between the effects of peptidoglycan and lysates, and the differential effects of lysates derived from specific strains, suggest that molecules specific to individual bacteria have different efficacies in enhancing barrier function.
  • Both L. rhamnosus GG and B. longum increased the expression of TJ proteins in keratinocytes. However, the particular subset of molecules was different in each case. 
  •  The modulation of protein expression by B. longum and L. rhamnosus GG is almost certainly the mechanism by which lysates of increase the TJ barrier function of keratinocytes. Changes in the expression levels of claudins in particular have been shown many times previously to be linked to changes in barrier function. Furthermore, the human skin disease atopic dermatitis, where the barrier is aberrant, is known to be associated with reduced claudin 1 expression. Hence, the evidence in skin so far suggests that expression of TJ proteins is associated with barrier function.

FINDINGS

Lysates of probiotic bacteria could potentially play a role in the treatment of barrier dysfunction under conditions where the TJs are known to be aberrant, such as atopic dermatitis, where loss of expression of claudin 1 is reportedly involved in a subset of patients.

Sultana, R., McBain, A. J., & O’Neill, C. A. (2013). Strain-Dependent Augmentation of Tight-Junction Barrier Function in Human Primary Epidermal Keratinocytes by Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium Lysates. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 79(16), 4887–4894. https://doi.org/10.1128/aem.00982-13

Probiotic lysates can induce beneficial effects in maintaining natural microbiome balance

Probiotic lysates can induce beneficial effects in maintaining natural microbiome balance

Topical application of certain probiotic bacteria, such as Lactobacillus reuteri and Lactobacillus rhamnosus, can protect skin cells from Staphylococcus aureus infection by preventing the bacteria from adhering to the cells, potentially aiding in the prevention of skin infections.

A research group led by Tessa Prince of the University of Manchester (2012) reported that recent studies have shown that probiotic bacteria, specifically L. reuteri, can protect human skin cells from the harmful effects of the pathogen S. aureus. The protective mechanism involves competitive exclusion of the pathogen from binding sites on the cells. This suggests that topical application of probiotics could prevent skin infections.

WHAT THIS ARTICLE ADDS:

  • When normal primary human epidermal keratinocytes (NHEK) were exposed to a pathogen and L. reuteri, the probiotic protected the cells from the effects of the pathogen, as indicated by the significantly higher percentage of viability of S. aureus-infected NHEK in the presence versus absence of L. reuteri (Fig. 1a; see Fig. S2 in the supplemental material)
  • The protective effects of the probiotic were variable between different species because the protection afforded by L. reuteri was greater than that provided by L. rhamnosus
  • L. reuteri can protect keratinocytes from the pathogenic effects of S. aureus through exclusion and competition for binding sites

ABSTRACT

Recent studies have suggested that the topical application of probiotic bacteria can improve skin health or combat disease. We have utilized a primary human keratinocyte culture model to investigate whether probiotic bacteria can inhibit Staphylococcus aureus infection. Evaluation of the candidate probiotics Lactobacillus reuteri ATCC 55730, Lactobacillus rhamnosus AC413, and Lactobacillus salivarius UCC118 demonstrated that both L. reuteri and L. rhamnosus, but not L. salivarius, reduced S. aureus-induced keratinocyte cell death in both undifferentiated and differentiated keratinocytes. Keratinocyte survival was significantly higher if the probiotic was applied prior to (P < 0.01) or simultaneously with (P < 0.01) infection with S. aureus but not when added after infection had commenced (P > 0.05). The protective effect of L. reuteri was not dependent on the elaboration of inhibitory substances such as lactic acid. L. reuteri inhibited adherence of S. aureus to keratinocytes by competitive exclusion (P = 0.026). L. salivarius UCC118, however, did not inhibit S. aureus from adhering to keratinocytes (P > 0.05) and did not protect keratinocyte viability. S. aureus utilizes the α5β1 integrin to adhere to keratinocytes, and blocking of this integrin resulted in a protective effect similar to that observed with probiotics (P = 0.03). This suggests that the protective mechanism for L. reuteri-mediated protection of keratinocytes was by competitive exclusion of the pathogen from its binding sites on the cells. Our results suggest that use of a topical probiotic prophylactically could inhibit the colonization of skin by S. aureus and thus aid in the prevention of infection.

KEY RESULTS

  • The application of S. aureus at physiologically relevant concentrations killed 69.5% of NHEK within 24 h. In contrast, none of the strains of lactobacilli significantly affected the viability of NHEK under the same conditions, suggesting that probiotics were well tolerated by keratinocytes.
  • When NHEK were exposed to both pathogen and L. reuteri, the probiotic protected the cells from the effects of the pathogen, as indicated by the significantly higher percentage of viability of S. aureus-infected NHEK in the presence versus absence of L. reuteri.
  • The protective effect of L. reuteri against S. aureus-induced cell death of keratinocytes could result from several different mechanisms. One of the mechanisms by which L. reuteri protects keratinocytes appears to be linked to the ability of L. reuteri to prevent adhesion of S. aureus

FINDINGS

This article has investigated the ability of three strains of lactobacilli to protect keratinocytes from the effects of the common skin pathogen S. aureus. Probiotic lysate can protect skin cells from Staphylococcus aureus infection by preventing the bacteria from adhering to the cells, potentially aiding in the prevention of skin infections.

Prince, T., McBain, A. J., & O’Neill, C. A. (2012). Lactobacillus reuteri Protects Epidermal Keratinocytes from Staphylococcus aureus-Induced Cell Death by Competitive Exclusion. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 78(15), 5119–5126. https://doi.org/10.1128/aem.00595-12

ANTI-ACNI EFFECT OF Lactiplantibacillus plantarum LYSATE

ANTI-ACNI EFFECT OF Lactiplantibacillus plantarum LYSATE

SkinDuoTM, a serum containing Lactiplantibacillus plantarum, has shown promising results in improving acne by increasing viability on skin models and reducing bacteria associated with acne.

A team at the Cell Therapy Research Institute led by Christine Podrini (2023) report that Acne is a common inflammatory skin condition, and the Lactiplantibacillus plantarum serum has shown enhanced viability of L. plantarum bacteria, potentially offering a new approach to acne management. The serum did not exhibit toxic responses on the skin and resulted in improved viability in subjects. Acne is a complex disease that can impact quality of life and lead to scarring. Lactiplantibacillus plantarum aims to prevent the production of inflammatory mediators and inhibit acne-causing bacteria, offering a potential solution for acne management.

WHAT THIS ARTICLE ADDS:

  • Acne remains the most common inflammatory dermatosis treated worldwide
  • The impact of the combined components found in the SkinDuoTM serum that included mannitol, hyaluronic acid and vitamin B1 on L. plantarum viability was assessed by comparing it to the viability of the L. plantarum solemnly
  • The proportion of alive bacteria was overall stable over time, an increased number of L. plantarum was observed after 7 days and 4 weeks for the SkinDuoTM dry formulation when compared to L. plantarum only (Figure S1), suggesting an enhanced viability
  • The results of this study have demonstrated the potential of SkinDuoTM as a new approach to acne management
  • The generation of an inflammatory process plays a key role in the pathophysiology of acne, and SkinDuoTM is designed to prevent the production of inflammatory mediators
  • Resulting 9/10 subjects that applied the serum SkinDuoTM resulted in more than 50% mean viability when compared to initial time 0
  • Serum did not exhibit toxic responses on the skin, and the topical formulation is suitable for the application of live bacteria in a sufficient dose on the skin that is delivered in a viable state

ABSTRACT

The tailoring of the skin microbiome is challenging and is a research hotspot in the pathogenesis of immune-mediated inflammatory skin diseases such as acne. Commonly encountered preservatives used as functional ingredients have an impact on the skin microbiota and are known to inhibit the survival of skin commensal bacteria. The selected species is Lactiplantibacillus plantarum. Ex vivo human skin models were used as a test system to assess the strain viability which was then validated on healthy volunteers. Lactiplantibacillus plantarum showed increased viability over time for in vitro skin models and a stable viability of over 50% on healthy skin. The strain was tested on human primary sebocytes obtained from sebaceous gland rich areas of facial skin and inoculated with the most abundant bacteria from the skin microbiota. Results on human ex vivo sebaceous gland models with the virulent phylotype of Cutibacterium acnes and Staphylococcus epidermidis present a significant reduction in viability, lipid production, and anti-inflammatory markers. We have developed an innovative anti-acne serum with L. plantarum that mimics the over-production of lipids, anti-inflammatory properties, and improves acne-disease skin models. Based on these results, we suggest that Lactiplantibacillus plantarum may be introduced as an acne-mitigating agent.

KEY RESULTS:

Acne is a skin disease with an inflammatory background. Topical antibiotics represent the most common first-line therapy for acne even though prolonged treatment may not result in an effective cure. However, topical antibiotic agents are most frequently used for mild inflammatory disease, including papulopustular acne. For patients with more severe extensive acne skin disease, oral antibiotics are used together with topical retinoids.

REFRENCE

Podrini, C., Schramm, L., Marianantoni, G., Apolinarska, J., McGuckin, C., Forraz, N., Milet, C., Desroches, A.-L., Payen, P., D’Aguanno, M., & Biazzo, M. (2023). Topical Administration of Lactiplantibacillus plantarum (SkinDuoTM) Serum Improves Anti-Acne Properties. Microorganisms, 11(2), 417. https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms11020417

Anti-inflammatory benefits of topical probiotic lysates

Anti-inflammatory benefits of topical probiotic lysates

Probiotic strain Lactobacillus reuteri DSM 17938, whether in live or lysate form, shows potential benefits for skin health by reducing inflammation, enhancing skin barrier function, and having antimicrobial properties.

A team at the BioGaia (Sweden) led by Ia Khmaladze (2019) report that L. reuteri DSM 17938 has anti-inflammatory properties and can protect against UVB-induced inflammation, making it potentially useful for skin conditions like photoaging and acne. Both live bacteria and lysate products of L. reuteri DSM 17938 have shown anti-inflammatory effects and can inhibit pathogenic skin bacteria. Further research is needed to explore the potential benefits of L. reuteri DSM 17938 for skin health and treatment possibilities.

WHAT THIS ARTICLE ADDS:

  • The results demonstrate that L. reuteri DSM 17938 can protect against UVB‐induced inflammatory response which could be relevant in photo‐ ageing, UV‐R mediated inflammation prevention as well as other inflammatory skin conditions.
  • The results clearly demonstrate that both live bacteria and the lysate of L. reuteri DSM 17938 has anti‐inflammatory activity against the UV‐R‐induced inflammatory cytokines IL‐6 and IL‐8 and an impact on skin barrier, using ex vivo models.
  • Live L. reuteri had an inhibitory action against pathogenic skin bacteria
  • It could be hypothesized that the live form of L. reuteri DSM 17938 could be used in management of skin issues related to photo ageing, bacterial overgrowth and skin hydration.
  • These findings suggest usage of lactobacillus lysate for treatment of different skin inflammatory conditions such as AD and acne, which could potentially limit the usage of antibiotics, benzoyl peroxide and salicylic acid.

ABSTRACT

Human skin microbiota might play an important role in maintaining skin health and potentially prevent premature skin ageing. The use of probiotics in therapeutic skin applications is an attractive idea, as it could offer an alternative option for certain inflammatory skin disorders and dry or sensitive skin. Here, we investigated for the first time, a comparative study of live and the lysate products of probiotic strain Lactobacillus reuteri DSM 17938 in skin topical applications using ex vivo skin models focusing on anti‐inflammatory and skin barrier function and in vitro assays for antimicrobial activity. the results of this article in ultraviolet B radiation (UVB‐R) induced inflammation model demonstrated that both live bacteria and the lysate of L. reuteri DSM 17938 reduced proinflammatory IL‐6 and IL‐8, illustrated in both reconstructed human epidermis (RHE) and native skin models. Live L reuteri DSM 17938 significantly increased aquaporin 3 (AQP3) gene expression, while the lysate enhanced laminin A/B levels in a healthy (unstimulated) state of RHE, suggesting a positive impact on skin barrier. In addition, live L. reuteri DSM 17938 had antimicrobial action against pathogenic skin bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes M1, Cutibacterium acnes AS12, Pseudomonas aeruginosa), whereas the lysate did not have such an effect. Therefore, it is hypothesized that L. reuteri DSM 17938 could be beneficial for general skin health, to avoid the UVB‐R‐mediated inflammatory cascade and/or prevent photo-ageing, improve barrier function or in the management of unhealthy skin prone to inflammatory conditions due to its antimicrobial, anti‐inflammatory and skin barrier enhancing functions.

KEY RESULTS

This article determined the effect of live L. reuteri DSM 17938 and its lysate on inflammation, pathogen inhibition and barrier function in human skin. These mechanisms would be important targets for the management and protection of damaged or unhealthy skin, prone to different inflammatory skin conditions.

There is a strong evidence for the potential use of orally administered probiotics in skin health, but as the FIGURE 3  shows, Topical application of live Lactobacillus reuteri DSM 17938 has a positive effect on skin AQP3 and KLK5 gene expression and the lysate upregulates laminin A/B.

FINDINGS

  • The results clearly demonstrate that L. reuteri DSM 17938 lysates has anti‐inflammatory potential in UVB‐R‐induced inflammation ex vivo skin model.
  • L. reuteri DSM 17938 can protect against UVB‐induced inflammatory response (Figures 1 and 2) which could be relevant in photo‐ ageing, UV‐R‐mediated inflammation prevention as well as other inflammatory skin conditions.
  • Both live bacteria and the lysate products of L reuteri DSM 17938 have antiinflammatory activity against the UV‐R‐induced inflammatory cytokines IL6 and IL8 and an impact on skin barrier, using ex vivo models.
  • The lysates could be used in skincare where an anti-inflammatory action is needed.
  • the lysate upregulates laminin A/B thus the application of lysates is beneficial in preserving skin hydration.

Khmaladze, I., Butler, É., Fabre, S., & Gillbro, J. M. (2019). Lactobacillus reuteri DSM 17938—A comparative study on the effect of probiotics and lysates on human skin. Experimental Dermatology, 28(7), 822–828. Portico. https://doi.org/10.1111/exd.13950

What are the improving skin barrier mechanisms of probiotic lysate

What are the improving skin barrier mechanisms of probiotic lysate?

The skin’s main function is to protect the body, and skin barrier proteins like loricrin and filaggrin help maintain this barrier function, with the use of Lactobacillus rhamnosus lysate showing potential to improve skin barrier function and protect against skin irritants like sodium lauryl sulfate.

Ye Jung and colleagues (2019) reported that the study investigated the use of Lactobacillus rhamnosus lysate to improve skin barrier function in a reconstructed human epidermis. The application of the lysate increased the expression of tight junction and skin barrier proteins, demonstrating protective effects on the skin barrier. The lysate also alleviated the cytotoxicity of a skin irritant and attenuated dye penetration and desmosome destruction. Overall, the study suggests that Lactobacillus rhamnosus lysate could be beneficial for skin moisturization.

| WHAT THIS ARTICLE ADDS:

  • Application of LR lysate on a reconstructed human epidermis increased the expression of tight junction proteins; claudin 1 and occludin as determined by immunofluorescence analysis, and skin barrier proteins; loricrin and filaggrin as determined by immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence analysis and qPCR.
  • Lactobacillus rhamnosus lysate has protective effects on the skin barrier, which could expand the utility of probiotics to skin-moisturization ingredients

ABSTRACT

The main function of the skin is to protect the body from the external environment. The barrier function of the skin is mainly provided by the stratum corneum, which consists of corneocytes bound with the corneodesmosomes and lamellar lipids. Skin barrier proteins like loricrin and filaggrin also contribute to the skin barrier function. In various skin diseases, skin barrier dysfunction is a common symptom, and skin irritants like detergents or surfactants could also perturb skin barrier function. Many efforts have been made to develop strategies to improve skin barrier function. This article investigated whether the lysates of Lactobacillus rhamnosus (LR), one of the most widely used probiotic species for various health benefits, may improve the skin barrier function in a reconstructed human epidermis, Keraskin™. Application of LR lysate on Keraskin™ increased the expression of tight junction proteins; claudin 1 and occludin as determined by immunofluorescence analysis, and skin barrier proteins; loricrin and filaggrin as determined by immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence analysis and qPCR. Also, the cytotoxicity of a skin irritant, sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS), was alleviated by the pretreatment of LR lysate. The skin barrier protective effects of LR lysate could be further demonstrated by the attenuation of SLS-enhanced dye-penetration. LR lysate also attenuated the destruction of desmosomes after SLS treatment. Collectively, we demonstrated that LR lysate has protective effects on the skin barrier, which could expand the utility of probiotics to skin-moisturization ingredients.

KEY RESULTS

  • Application of Lactobacillus rhamnosus lysate on Keraskin™ increased the expression of tight junction proteins; claudin 1 and occludin
  • Application of Lactobacillus rhamnosus lysate on Keraskin™ increased the expression of skin barrier proteins; loricrin and filaggrin.
  •  LR lysate also attenuated the destruction of desmosomes after SLS treatment. Collectively, we demonstrated that LR lysate has protective effects on the skin barrier, which could expand the utility of probiotics to skin-moisturization ingredients.

Jung, Y.-O., Jeong, H., Cho, Y., Lee, E.-O., Jang, H.-W., Kim, J., Nam, K., & Lim, K.-M. (2019). Lysates of a Probiotic, Lactobacillus rhamnosus, Can Improve Skin Barrier Function in a Reconstructed Human Epidermis Model. International Journal of Molecular Sciences, 20(17), 4289. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20174289

ANTI ACNE EFFECT WITH NIACINAMIDE

ANTI ACNE EFFECT WITH NIACINAMIDE

WHAT THIS ARTICLE ADDS

Niacinamide and nicotinic acid can be converted into each other in the body and have various beneficial effects on the skin, including improving epidermal barrier function, reducing wrinkles, and inhibiting photocarcinogenesis. Niacinamide also increases protein synthesis, stimulates ceramide synthesis, and accelerates keratinocyte differentiation. It has been shown to be effective in treating conditions such as acne vulgaris and rosacea, as well as improving wound healing. Additionally, niacinamide has anti-inflammatory properties and can lighten hyperpigmentation.

ABSTRACT

Patients with chronic pain commonly believe their pain is related to the weather. Scientific evidence to support their beliefs is inconclusive, in part due to difficulties in getting a large dataset of patients frequently recording their pain symptoms during a variety of weather conditions. Smartphones allow the opportunity to collect data to overcome these difficulties. Our study Cloudy with a Chance of Pain analysed daily data from 2658 patients collected over a 15-month period. The analysis demonstrated significant yet modest relationships between pain and relative humidity, pressure and wind speed, with correlations remaining even when accounting for mood and physical activity. This research highlights how citizen-science experiments can collect large datasets on real-world populations to address long-standing health questions. These results will act as a starting point for a future system for patients to better manage their health through pain forecasts.

KEY RESULTS

  • Nicotinic acid and niacinamide are effective as vitamins because they can be converted into each other within the organism.
  • Using cell cultures of human keratinocytes, Tanno et al. stablished that niacinamide led to improved differentiation of keratinocytes and increased synthesis of ceramides, free fatty acids and cholesterol. When these results were transferred to conditions in vivo, Tanno et al demonstrated, by the topical application of niacinamide in the context of a vehicle-controlled study in the case of winter xerosis, an improvement in epidermal barrier function, which can be presented as a reduction of transepidermal water loss and an improvement in horny layer moisture.
  • Matts and Solechnik confirmed the results of two clinical studies carried out by Bissett et al In the context of a vehicle-controlled study, it was possible to show a smoothing of the skin surface structure and a reduction in wrinkle depth on the facial skin of women following 12 weeks topical treatment with niacinamide, results which differed statistically significantly from the influence of the vehicle.
  • The results demonstrated that the effect of niacinamide was dose-dependent.
  • UV radiation leads to the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) which are responsible for the creation of free radicals that lead to direct damage to DNA, lipids and proteins, i.e. mainly damage to membranes, and which are held responsible for photocarcinogenesis.
  • Niacinamide is beneficial because it results in the increased synthesis of proteins and keratin, stimulation of ceramide synthesis and acceleration of the differentiation of keratinocytes.

REFERENCE

W Gehring (2004). Nicotinic acid/niacinamide and the skin.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/17147561

ANTI ACNE CHARACTERISTIC OF LACTIPLANTIBACILLUS PLANTARUM

ANTI ACNE CHARACTERISTIC OF LACTIPLANTIBACILLUS PLANTARUM

The study found that an anti-acne lotion containing ferment lysate was effective in improving acne lesions, reducing transepidermal water loss and sebum production, and overall showed positive results in treating mild-to-moderate acne.

In ‘A pilot study on the efficacy of topical lotion containing anti-acne postbiotic in subjects with mild -to -moderate acne’, a research group led by Hongchang Cui from the San Gallicano Hospital (2022) reported that the study investigated the efficacy of an anti-acne lotion containing ferment lysate in people with mild to moderate acne. After 4 weeks of treatment, a statistically significant improvement in acne lesions was observed. The lotion was found to be safe and well tolerated, with no skin irritation reactions reported. Further research is needed to understand the immunomodulatory mechanism of the postbiotic components in the lotion.

WHAT THIS ARTICLE ADDDS:

Acne can compromise facial esthetics and become a mental burden, especially when it occurs in puberty

  • After 2 weeks of treatment, a statistically significant improvement in acne lesions was observed compared to baseline (P < 0.01), and this continued to the end of the study
  • The results show that the median lethal dose (LD50) of the anti-acne lotion in rats exceeded 2180 mg/kg body weight (BW), which means the lotion can be graded as low-poison preparation
  • The result from the skin irritation tests showed that none of the 30 subjects, who participated in the 24-h patch test, had undesirable skin irritation reactions to the anti-acne lotion
  • The results from this study suggested a topical antiacne skincare lotion containing ferment lysate from L. plantarum VHProbi R E15 in people with mild to -moderate acne is safe and well tolerated and may be able to ameliorate acne lesions after 4 weeks of treatment
  • Detailed molecular studies are needed to determine the underlying immunomodulatory mechanism related to postbiotic components, that contribute to this novel skincare method based on microbiome modulation

ABSTRACT:

Introduction Acne can compromise facial esthetics and become a mental burden, especially when it occurs in puberty. Skincare cosmetics with anti-acne efficiency is more convenient than other treatment modalities, such as dietary supplements, in certain circumstances. The purpose of this study was to investigate the efficacy of an anti-acne lotion in alleviating acne. Methods In our study, an anti-acne lotion containing ferment lysate produced by Lactiplantibacillus plantarum VHProbi ® E15 were applied to subjects with mild -to -moderate acne over 4 weeks. The efficacy was evaluated based on instrumental measurements using Visia ® -CR and CK-MPA ® system. Results and discussion The anti-acne lotion exhibited favorable safety, meeting the stringent criteria for the detection of microbes, heavy metals, toxicity, and irritation. After 2 weeks of treatment, a statistically significant improvement in acne lesions was observed compared to baseline ( P &lt; 0.01), and this continued to the end of the study. After 4 weeks of treatment, the transepidermal water loss ( P &lt; 0.05) and sebum production ( P &lt; 0.05) were significantly decreased in subjects compared to baseline. In addition, the pore/area of interest (AOI) and stratum corneum hydration displayed slightly positive changes throughout treatment. Thus, we conclude that applying topical anti-acne lotion may be safe and confer effective benefits in people with mild -to -moderate acne and represents a promising therapeutic option for acne.

KEY RESULTS:

After 2 weeks of treatment, a statistically significant improvement in acne lesions was observed compared to baseline (P < 0.01), and this continued to the end of the study. After 4 weeks of treatment, the transepidermal water loss (P < 0.05) and sebum production (P < 0.05) were significantly decreased in subjects compared to baseline. In addition, the pore/area of interest (AOI) and stratum corneum hydration displayed slightly positive changes throughout treatment. Thus, applying topical anti-acne lotion may be safe and confer effective benefits in people with mild to moderate acne and represents a promising therapeutic option for acne.

REFERENCE

Cui, H., Guo, C., Wang, Q., Feng, C., & Duan, Z. (2022). A pilot study on the efficacy of topical lotion containing anti-acne postbiotic in subjects with mild -to -moderate acne. Frontiers in Medicine, 9. https://doi.org/10.3389/fmed.2022.1064460

https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fmed.2022.1064460/full
What Affects Our Skin Microbiome_

What Affects Our Skin Microbiome?

The skin microbiome can be affected by various intrinsic and extrinsic factors. Some of the key factors that impact the skin microbiome include:

Skin Disinfection: Excessive use of skin disinfectants and antimicrobial products can disrupt the balance of the skin microbiota, leading to a reduction in the number and variety of microbes that colonize the skin

Cosmetic Products: Certain cosmetic ingredients may promote or inhibit the growth of specific bacteria, and excessive use of cosmetics can reduce the diversity of skin microbes. For instance, the lipid components of moisturizers can provide nutrients and promote the growth of lipophilic bacteria, potentially disrupting the microbiome and causing skin issues such as inflammation, dryness, and irritation

Hygiene Routines: Modification of hygiene routines, including frequent washing with harsh cleansers, can alter the skin microbiome, depending on the products used and the location on the body. Over-washing or using harsh cleansers can strip the skin of its healthy bacteria, leading to an imbalance in the microbiome. Frequent washing the face with a generic cleanser, which kills bacteria, has been reported to disturb the microbiome returning to its natural balance, if this is repeated several times daily over a longer time-span, it disturbs the skin barrier resulting in skin irritation.

Gut-Skin Axis: The gut microbiome can impact skin health through the immune system and the production of bioactive compounds. Disruptions in the relationship between the gut microbiome and the immune system can potentially promote the development of skin diseases

Lifestyle Factors: Lifestyle habits, such as diet and environmental exposures, can also influence the skin microbiome. For example, ingested compounds and chemicals can have an immediate impact on skin appearance and health through their influence on the gut microbiome and subsequent systemic effects

In summary, the skin microbiome is influenced by a range of factors, including skincare practices, cosmetic products, hygiene routines, and even internal factors such as the gut microbiome and lifestyle habits. Understanding these influences is important for maintaining a healthy and balanced skin microbiome 1–5.

Reference:

1.        Habeebuddin M, Karnati RK, Shiroorkar PN, et al. Topical Probiotics: More Than a Skin Deep. Pharmaceutics. 2022;14(3):1-22. doi:10.3390/pharmaceutics14030557

2.        Byrd AL, Belkaid Y, Segre JA. The human skin microbiome. Nat Rev Microbiol. 2018;16(3):143-155. doi:10.1038/nrmicro.2017.157

3.        Huang MCJ, Tang J. Probiotics in personal care products. Microbiol Discov. 2015;3(1):5. doi:10.7243/2052-6180-3-5

4.        Holland KT, Bojar RA. Cosmetics: What is their influence on the skin microflora? Am J Clin Dermatol. 2002;3(7):445-449. doi:10.2165/00128071-200203070-00001

5.        WebMd. What Is the Skin Microbiome? Published 2023. https://www.webmd.com/skin-problems-and-treatments/skin-microbiome

What are probiotics_

What are probiotics?

What will be discussed in this article?

What are probiotics?

Where are probiotics found?

What is probiotic lysate?

Do skincare products contain probiotic lysates?

What are probiotics?

Probiotics are live microorganisms, including bacteria and yeasts, that offer health benefits when consumed or applied to the body. They are often referred to as “good” or “helpful” bacteria because they contribute to the body’s overall well-being, particularly by improving or restoring the gut microbiota. Probiotics can be found in dietary supplements, fermented foods and drinks, and even in topical products for skin application. They play a crucial role in maintaining a healthy digestive system, reducing inflammation, and ensuring the skin health. Stress and dietary choices can negatively affect the microbiome, and probiotics serve as a means to help restore its balance 1. 

Where are probiotics found?

Live microorganisms are found in probiotic foods or supplements, which are intended to help maintain or improve a healthy balance between “good” bacteria and “bad” bacteria in the body. In humans, prebiotic foods (typically high-fiber foods) provide food for our microbiota. By using prebiotics, these microorganisms will be better balanced. Probiotics are in foods such as yogurt and sauerkraut. The following foods contain prebiotics: whole grains, bananas, greens, onions, garlic, soybeans, and artichokes. In addition, probiotics and prebiotics are added to some foods and available as dietary supplements. Some skincare products that are microbiome friendly for the skin’s microbiota may contain probiotic particles.

What is probiotic lysate?

A lysate is a concentrated dose of probiotic function that contains all the components of the bacteria cells (soluble and insoluble) 2,3. Bacterial lysate contains “bio-active” molecules or metabolites that reportedly retain beauty benefits without the presence of whole or live bacteria 4.

Do skincare products contain probiotic lysates?

Only Few science-based skincare products contain probiotic lysates. Microbiome friendly products are innovative and a novel concept that demands many years of investigation and research. Probiotics are also known to help balance the skin’s microbiome, which helps to keep the skin healthy.

Probiotic lysates are effective due to their beneficial bacterial components, which can help to reduce inflammation, moisturize the skin, and fight bacteria that can cause breakouts. Probiotic lysates help nourish and protect the skin, and are said to reduce signs of aging. The lysates also help to deliver nutrients to the skin, which can help to keep it looking youthful and healthy. SOÀLANGÉ products offers a complete care for both skin and its microbiome. The Cell Lysate approach alongside nourishing ingredients creates the environment to restore microbial diversity & balancing out the harmful effects of modern life.

References:

1.        Kober MM, Bowe WP. The effect of probiotics on immune regulation, acne, and photoaging. Int J Women’s Dermatology. 2015;1(2):85-89. doi:10.1016/j.ijwd.2015.02.001

2.        Sanchez C, De Villemeur M. From pharma to beauty. EBR – Eur Biopharm Rev. 2018;(April):40-43.

3.        Sfriso R, Egert M, Gempeler M, Voegeli R, Campiche R. Revealing the secret life of skin – with the microbiome you never walk alone. Int J Cosmet Sci. 2020;42(2):116-126. doi:10.1111/ics.12594

4.        Huang MCJ, Tang J. Probiotics in personal care products. Microbiol Discov. 2015;3(1):5. doi:10.7243/2052-6180-3-5

What is the skin microbiome_

What is the skin microbiome?

In this article we will discuss the topics below:

What is the skin microbiome?

How did we get the microbiome?

How do I get a healthy microbiome?

A healthy microbiome is essential for optimal health and can be achieved by following a balanced diet, getting enough sleep, and engaging in regular physical activity. For example, a diet high in fiber and probiotics can help improve gut health by increasing the number of beneficial bacteria in the gut. Similarly, probiotics play a crucial role in maintaining our skin health.

What is the skin microbiome?

There are millions of bacteria, fungi, and viruses living on our skin, making up our microbiota. Bacteria aren’t always a bad thing — in fact, understanding how good bacteria support your health can help you lead a more balanced lifestyle inside and out. Like those in our gut, skin microorganisms play a key role in protecting against invading pathogens, educating our immune system, and maintaining the metabolic and hormonal equilibrium of the body (1–3).
Skin is the largest organ of the body and is the home to beneficial microorganisms that prevent pathogens from invading. Any imbalance in these microorganisms results in skin disorders. Acne, atopic dermatitis, psoriasis, and rosacea are some common skin conditions that arise due to an imbalance in the existing skin microbiome and disturbance in skin barrier function (1,4,5).

How did we get microbiome?

Even before birth, microorganisms colonize fetal skin. Initially, the flora of the new-born is low in diversity and similar to the flora of the delivery site, e.g. a vaginal delivery colonizes the skin with vaginal flora and a caesarean section. Neonatal skin colonization establishes immune tolerance to commensal bacteria during this early stage of life. Skin colonization by commensal skin microorganisms continues during breastfeeding. In parallel, microorganisms from the environment attempt to colonize the skin and scalp. Thus, by adulthood a final state of equilibrium is acquired with an diverse commensal skin and scalp microbiota that is unique for each individual (4,6).

How do I get a healthy microbiome?

The most crucial approach is to cease the negative impact on the microbiome.

Modern lifestyles, characterized by excessive cleanliness, sterility, and the use of various chemical skincare and cosmetic products, often lead to an imbalance in the skin’s microbiome. For instance, frequent use of generic cleansers that eliminate bacteria has been reported to disrupt the skin’s natural balance, potentially leading to skin barrier damage and irritation over time.

Which Factors adversely affect our skin microbiome?

  • Modern lifestyle
  • excessive cleanliness
  • use of various skincare and cosmetic products

To restore balance to the skin microbiome, it is recommended to adopt a healthy, whole food-based diet, avoid overconsumption of processed foods, stay well-hydrated, and be mindful of skincare habits that may adversely affect the skin’s microbial community. Furthermore, the use of microbiome-friendly skincare products is emphasized as a key factor in maintaining a balanced and healthy skin microbiome.

How can we restore the microbiome balance of our skin?

  • adopt a healthy, whole food-based diet
  • avoid overconsumption of processed foods
  • stay well-hydrated
  • be mindful of skincare habits that may adversely affect the skin’s microbial community
  • the use of microbiome-friendly skincare products

These products are designed to promote equilibrium within the skin’s microbial community, thereby contributing to improved skin health and overall well-being. Creating a microbiome-friendly skincare routine can help balance this system, leading to healthier, more radiant skin. The goal is to find equilibrium and maintain the balance of bacteria on your skin(6,7)

references

1.        Byrd AL, Belkaid Y, Segre JA. The human skin microbiome. Nat Rev Microbiol [Internet]. 2018;16(3):143–55. Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nrmicro.2017.157

2.        Lee YB, Byun EJ, Kim HS. Potential role of the microbiome in acne: A comprehensive review. J Clin Med. 2019;8(7):1–25.

3.        Sohn E. Community effort. Nature. 2018;563(7732):S91–3.

4.        Habeebuddin M, Karnati RK, Shiroorkar PN, Nagaraja S, Asdaq SMB, Anwer MK, et al. Topical Probiotics: More Than a Skin Deep. Pharmaceutics. 2022;14(3):1–22.

5.        Prince T, McBain AJ, O’Neill CA. Lactobacillus reuteri protects epidermal keratinocytes from Staphylococcus aureus-induced cell death by competitive exclusion. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2012;78(15):5119–26.

6.        Araviiskaia E, Dréno B. The role of topical dermocosmetics in acne vulgaris. J Eur Acad Dermatology Venereol. 2016;30(6):926–35.

7.        Sfriso R, Egert M, Gempeler M, Voegeli R, Campiche R. Revealing the secret life of skin – with the microbiome you never walk alone. Int J Cosmet Sci. 2020;42(2):116–26.